Distillation Process

Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation.

Distillation may result in essentially complete separation (nearly pure components), or it may be a partial separation that increases the concentration of selected components of the mixture.

In either case the process exploits differences in the volatility of the mixture's components. In industrial chemistry, distillation is a unit operation of practically universal importance, but it is a physical separation process and not a chemical reaction.


Dehydration Process

The controlled dehydration process changes the chemical composition of red grapes.

Highest values for individual phenolic compounds are observed in dehydrated grapes.

Antioxidant activity is highest in dehydrated grapes than control samples.

Dehydration process increase the content of minerals of the grapes.

Filtration Process

Filtration is the process of passing water through material to remove particulate and other impurities, including floc, from the water being treated.

These impurities consist of suspended particles (fine silts and clays), biological matter (bacteria, plankton, spores, cysts or other matter) and floc. The material used in filters for public water supply is normally a bed of sand, coal, or other granular substance. Filtration processes can generally be classified as being either slow or rapid.

Film Coating

Thin Film Coating Process

Thin film coating processes by PVD and CVD have been indispensable technologies in many engineering fields.

In contrast, thick film processing has not been well developed despite various useful applications, such as thermal barrier, anticorrosion, and antiabrasive coatings.

Laser CVD has been traditionally employed to prepare small-scale deposits such as thin film or dots, whiskers, and nanotubes. Further, this technique cannot be applied to prepare thick and wide-area coating films.